NCERT Solutions – Rise of Nationalism in Europe
Q.1 In what way do you think this print (figure 1) depicts a Utopian vision?
Figure 1 depicts a dream of world wise democratic and social republics. It shows many nations which will touch the milestone to become democratic and social republics. It would of course, be an ideal situation. Hence, this figure depicts an utopian vision as it was unlikely to actually exist.
Discuss (Page 4)
Q.2 Summarise the attributes of a nation as Renan understands them. Why, in his view are nations important?
Ernest Renan was a French philosopher. According to him, following are the attributes of a nation:
1. A nation is the culmination of a long past of endeavors, scarifies and devotion.
2. The idea of a nation is based upon the social capita which is the heroic past, great men and glory.
3. Nation is formed of people who have performed great deeds in past and wish to perform more of them.
4. Nation is a large – scale solidarity among its people.
5. In a nation only its inhabitants have the right to be consulted.
6. A nation does not annex or hold onto a control against its will.
According to Renan, nations are important as they guarantee liberty to one and all.
Intext Question (Page 8)
Q.3 How did nationalism and the idea of the national . State emerge?
1. The nationalism and the idea of nation-state emerged among the culturally diverse and regional social groups of the European continuum.
2. With the transformation of Europen society, due to industrialisation, the new middle class emerged.
3. It comprised of labour, working – class population, industrialists, business – men, professionals etc.
4. The educated and liberal population among the middle class, through of uniting the culturally compatible sections of European society.
5. Hence, they thought of nationalism this led to the emergence of the idea of nation – state.
Discuss (Page 10)
Q.4 Describe the political ends that fried rich list hopes to achieve through economic measures.
Professor Friendrich List hopes that economic liberalism and reforms would help in generating national sentiments. These sentiments would be as under :
1. Freedom for individual
2. Equality of all before law
3. Iniolability of private property
4. Concept of government by consent
5. End of aristocracy and clerical privileges
6. A constitution and representative government through parliament.
The economic reform , according to List would beget liberalism.
Activity (Page 11)
Q.5 Plot on a map of Europe the changes drawn up by the Vienna Congress.
Discuss (Page 11)
Q.6 What is the caricaturist trying to depict?
The caricaturists is trying to depict the true nature of conservative monarchies of the 19th century Europe, which did not allow the ideas of liberalism and individual freedom to flourish. In the picture the club has thinkers but they do not have power to express their thought. This is the right way to depict that the people did not have the freedom of speech or freedom of press.
Discuss (Page 15)
Q.7 Discuss the importance of language and popular traditions in the creation of national identity.
1. The language and popular traditions of a particular region or country give the feeling of shared past, collective and united living to the people.
2. They bind all the people by the thread of togetherness and pride.
3. They give them the feeling of being culturally one hence they perceive the sentiment of being nationally one and united.
Therefore, language and traditions create national identity.
Discuss (Page 16)
Q.8 Describe the cause of the Silesian weavers’ uprising. Comment on the viewpoint of the journalist.
1. The cause of the Silesian weavers’ uprising was lower payments for the job done.
2. Contractors, who gave raw materials and took away finished textiles from the weavers paid very less money for the latter’s services.
3. When the weavers asked for their dues, the contractors beat them to the hell. This led to the logical agitation and uprising by weavers against contractors.
4. The view point of the journalist that the misery of the workers is extreme and contractors take their unauthorized advantage is totally logical and acceptable.
Activity (Page 16)
Q.9 Imagine you are a weaver who saw the events as they unfolded. Write a report on what you saw.
1. The weavers, who work very hard to supply the order on time, did not get their due favour in terms of money returns.
2. When they asked for their logical returns, from the contractors, the latter scolded and beat the weavers.
3. This led to a high voltage reaction from weaving society. They united themselves and illegally entered the contractor’s house.
4. There they rampaged the house and the contractor, frightened due to unexpected attack, flew away.
5. Next day he returned along with military force and the weavers were shot deal.
Discuss (Page 18)
Q.10 Compare the positions on the question of women’s rights voiced by the three writers cited above. What do they reveal about liberal ideology?
1. The three writers cited above present three different views about the women’s rights.
2. One of these writers is opposed any political right to women.
3. The second writer is criticizing the mean who had political right. At the same time, the second writer advocates that women should be given political rights.
4. The third writers is in favour of question of women’s rights. He cited a comparative study between position of men and women is so far as political rights were concerned.
5. First, second, and third writers tell us that there were big divisions in the liberal ideology.
6. The liberal thinkers and writers, were divided on the question of the women’s rights.
Activity (Page 20)
Q.11 Describe the caricature. How does it represent the relationship between Bismark and the elected deputies of Parliament? What inter-pretation of democratic processes is the artist trying to convey?
1. In the caricature, Bismark is holding and weaving a hunter in the air. Rest of the deputies are fearful of him.
2. All of them, in order to save themselves and to show him due respect, have bowed down under the benches of the parliament.
3. The caricature shows that Bismark ruled over the brains of the German parliamentarians. He enjoyed commen –dable power over his men.
4. Artist is trying to interpret the democratic system in a funny way in which democracy exists only for the sake of name. In reality it is one man’s autocracy (Bismark’s) that exists in the parliament.
Activity (Page 22)
Q.12 The artist has portrayed Garibaldi as holding on to the base of the boot, so that the king of Sardinia Piedmont can enter if from the top. Look at the map of Italy once more. What statement is this caricature making?
According to picture, the boots symbolize the kingdom of the two Sicilies that lied in the southern Italy. Garibaldi had won them, and later, handed over them to the king of Saridinia- Piedmont, who was proclaimed the king of United Italy. The picture signifies the unification of Italy and role played by Garibaldi in it.
Activity (Page 24)
Q.13 With the help of the chart in box 3 (T.B. Page 24), identify the attributes of Veits Germania and interpret the symbolic meaning of the painting. In an earlier allegorical rendering of 1836, Veit had portrayed the Kaiser’s crown at the place where he has now located the broke chain. Explain the significance of this change.
1. The painting of Germania , by Philip Veit, symbolizes that German nation has emerged.
2. It is the beginning of new era in which the liberalnationalist attitude would prevail.
3. The new nation has enormous strength and is ready to make war or establish peace with its neighbours.
4. The nation of Germany is also free from the clutches of autocratic or monarchical dominance.
5. Germania is wearing an oak leaves crown which symbolizes heroism.
6. The change in Veit’s earlier portrait of Germania where crown was placed at the place of broken chains symbolizes that the nation is free from the autocratic monarchical rule.
Q.14 Describe what you see figure. What historical events could Huber be referring to in this allegorical vision of the nation?
1. In the figure by Julius Hubner, Germania had fallen down in the front of Kaiser’s crown and stick. This symbolizes that national assembly of all Germans, that began at the Church of St. Paul as Frankfurt Parliament had failed.
2. The crown and stick symbolize that the Frankfurt parliament was disbanded by the monarch and military.
Activity (Page 25)
Q.15 Look once more at figure. Imagine you were a citizen of Frankfurt in March 1848 and were present during the proceedings of the parliament. How would you (a) as a man seated in the hall of deputies, and (b) as a woman observing from the galleries, relate to the banner of Germania hanging from the ceiling?
(a) As a man seated in the hall of deputies, I would consider the banner of Germania, to have come true.
(b) As a woman observing from the galleries, I would consider the banner of Germania to be a partial representation of liberal- nationalist ideas.
Q.1 Write a note on
(a) Guiseppe Mazzini
(b) Count Camillo de Cavour
(c) The Greek War of independence
(d) Frankfurt parliament
(e) The role of women in nationalist struggles
(a) Guiseppe Mazzini :
(i) He was a young revolutionary of Italy.
(ii) He was highly influenced by the ideal of liberals nationalist nation state.
(iii) He wished to build Italy according to this ideal. Hence, in order to overthrown different monarchies that ruled over Italy during the 19th century, he got associated with secret revolutionary organisations.
(iv) Later, he himself established two revolutionary organisations namely. Young Italy in Marseilles, and Young Europe in Berne.
(v) He also befriended the like- minded young men from Poland, France, Italy and the German states.
(vi) Mazzini believed that God had intended nations to be the natural units of mankind. Therefore, he led a revolution to unify Italy in 1831 at Liguria.
(vii) But the revolution failed and he was sent into exile. But his ideas later inspired Cavour who ultimately unified ltaly in the second half of the 19th
(b) Count Camillo de Cavour :
(i) He was the chief minister of the kingdom of Sadinia- Piedmont of Italy.
(ii) He led the movement to unify the regions of Italy.
(iii) He was neither a revolutionary nor a democrat.
(iv) Like many other wealthy and educated members of the Italian elite, he spoke French much better than he did Italian.
(v) He had powerful diplomatic relations with France, with whose aid he defeated Austria in 1859.
(vi) He also mended Garibaldi’s mind to cede the southern kingdom of the Two scilies, with Sadinia-Piedmont, in order to unify Italy.
(vii) Thus, in 1861, Italy was unified and Victor Emmanuel II was proclaimed as the king of united Italy.
(c) The Greek War Independence :
(i) Greece was ruled by Ottoman empire in the 19th The empire was in its declining phase.
(ii) At the same time Greek nationals got influenced by the idea of liberal nationalism. Therefore, the struggle of Greek independence in 1821.
(iii) The Greeks got support from western European countries as well as from the Greeks living in other countries of Europe.
(iv) The poets and artists,who added romanticism to the Greek struggle of independence, also participated in its war with the ottoman Empire.
(v) One such famous poet was Lord Byron, who organised funds and later went to fight in war, where he died of fever in 1824.
(vi) Finally, the Treaty of Constant- inople of 1832, recongised Greece as an idependent nation.
(d) Frankfurt Parliament :
(i) The German middle class decided to vote for an all German National Assembly in 1848, and hence came to Frankfurt.
(ii) Around 831 persons were elected. They comprised the National Assembly.
(iii) The assembly decided to organize Frankfurt parliament in the church of St. Paul. Thus on 18 may , 1848 the famous Frankfurt parliament was convened.
(iv) The assembly decided that the German nation would be a monarchy controlled by parlimanet, and offered this term to the Prussian king, the latter rejected the terms and proposal of the assembly.
(v) Also the middle classes were restored to the suppression of working – class and artisans. This led to the division among the liberal minded persons.
(vi) The parliament got disrupted and people came to blows.
(vii) In order to control the situation, military was called in the assembly hall.
(viii) Thus, the monarchy and military combined together with autocracy, won over the liberal nationalist middle class.
Therefore, the Frankfurt parliament is famous in history as failure of liberalism and victory of monarchy.
(e) The role of Women in Nationalist Struggles :
(i) Women played a very significant role in he nationalist struggles all over the world.
(ii) They led the movements, bore the blows of police and military men, stood by their male counterparts, spread the ideas of liberal – nationalism in the urban and country side areas of Europe.
(iii) But women were dissatisfied a lot. They, in spit of their very active participation in nationalist struggles, did not get their share of cake i.e., they could not secure the right to vote, or the political rights for themselves till the end of 19th
Q.2 What steps did the French revolutionaries take to create a sense of collective identity among the French people?
The French revolutionaries took following steps to create a sense of collective identity among the French people:
1. They introduced the ideas of la patrie (the fatherland) and lec citogen (the citizens).
2. These ideas emphasized the notion of a united community enjoying equal rights under a constitution.
3. They chose a new French flag, the tricolor, to replace the former royal standard.
4. They elected the Estates General by active citizens and it was renamed as national assembly.
5. They composed new hymns, took oaths and commemorated martyrs, all in the name of nation.
6. They established a centralized administrative system, which formulated uniform laws for all citizens.
7. They adopted a uniform system of weights and measures and abolished internal customs duties and dues.
8. They promoted French over the regional dialects.
9. They further declared that it was the mission and destiny of the French nation to liberate the people of Europe from despotism, in other words to help other people of Europe to become nations.
Q.3 Who were Marianne and Germania? What was the importance of the way in which they were portrayed?
1. Marianne was the allegory or symbol of French nation.
2. Similarly, Germania was the allegory or symbol of German nation.
3. They were portrayed in a way to reflect the idea of nation- state.
4. They represented their respective country as if it were a person. It sought to give an abstract idea of the nation in a concrete form.
Q.4 Briefly trace the process of German unification.
1. The liberal minded middle class of German confederacy met in the Franckfurt parliament in 1848, with an objective of establishing Germany as a nation. But they failed miserably.
2. The parliament ended with monarchical, military and aristocratic triumph.
3. Later on, the chief minister of Prussia, Otto Von Bismark led the movement of unity of the German confederacy.
4. He organised the military wars and mobilized boureaucracy against the countries which had occupied the German states.
5. He fought three wars for over seven years with Austria, Denmark and France, which he won. This completed the process of German
6. In January 1871, the Prussian king, William I was proclaimed German emperor in a ceremony held at Versailles.
Q.5 What changes did Napoleon introduce to make the administrative system more efficient in the territories ruled by him?
Napoleon introduced following administrative reforms in the areas ruled by him:
1. He made administrative system more rational and effective.
2. He established civil code in 1804. It did away with all privileges based on birth, established equality before law and secured the right to property.
3. He simplified administrative system, ended feudal system, and freed peasants from serfdom and monarchical dues.
4. In towns too, guid system were removed. Transport and communication systems were improved.
5. Peasants, artisans, businessmen and workers enjoyed the new found freedom.
Q.1 Explain what is meant by the 1848 revolution of the liberals. What were the political social and economic ideas supported by the liberals?
The 1848 revolution of the liberals meant that they wanted to establish independent nation – states which recognized an individual’s freedom, equal law for all men and liberty. The political social and economic ideas supported by the liberals were as under –
1. Political Ideas :
(i) Liberals emphasized on the concept of government by consent.
(ii) End of autocracy and clerical privileges.
(iii) A constitutional and representative government through parliament.
(iv) Inviolable right of property.
2. Social Ideas :
(i) Social equality among all the citizens of a state was the most sought after social idea of liberals.
(ii) They wanted right to vote and get elected in the representative government.
(iii) In the 19th century, in Europe, the right to vote and get elected was not granted to those who did not have private property and women in the society who were reduced to the status of minor.
3. Economic Ideas :
(i) Liberals demanded freedom of markets.
(ii) Abolition of state imposed restrictions on the movement of good and capital.
Q.2 How was the history of the development of nationalism in Britain unlike the rest of Europe?
1. The nationalism developed in the Europe after the powerful revolutions, wars, military campaigns. For example, German and Italian unification.
2. But Britain was an exception to this. There never happened a war for nationalism.
3. Britain comprised ethnic , group such as – English , Scottish, Wales etc.
4. Among them English became powerful with time and began to dominate the other ethnic groups.
5. First they united with Scottish people and dominated them.
6. Then the began to control lrish people and thus, United Kingdom of Great emerged without the bloodshed.
Q.3 Choose three examples to show the contribution of culture to the growth of nationalism in Europe.
The cultural involvement in the growth of nationalism is referred to as Romanticism. The examples of Romanticism are as under :
1. Folk Culture : German philosopher, Herder emphasized that rue German culture was to be discovered among the German people- das volk. He popularized the spirit of German nation through folk songs folk poetry and folk dances.
2. Language : Language played an important role in growth of nationalism in Poland in the Russian occupied parts of Poland, Polish language was disbanded. When the clergy refused to speak Russian and underwent punishment, they sent nationalist messages to the Polish people and stood by polish language which symbolized polish culture.
3. Musci : Karol Kurpinski , a polish man, celebrated national struggle through his operas and music, turning folk dances like the Poloniase and Mazurak into nationalist symbols.
Q.4 Through focus on any two countries, explain how nations developed over the nineteenth century.
In the nineteenth century, nations developed in many ways. For example.
1. Italy emerged after the long drawn wars between the forces of Sadinia- Piedmont and those who ruled at different parts of Italy such as Austria, etc. But it was only through successful diplomatic engineering that military could attain end results.
2. Britain on the other hand, does not have any history of bloodshed. There the one ethnic group – English, exerted its power over the other ethnic groups of land by abolishing their national symbols, national dresses, national anthems and by propagating its own national flag, national symbol and national anthem. They even adopted the policy of divide and rule as in the case of Ireland.
Q.5 Why did nationalist tensions emerge in the Balkans?
1. Balkans was the region where many ethnic groups resided.
2. The whole region was controlled by ottoman Empire, which was in its declining phase.
3. At the same time the Slaves, as the ethnic groups of Balkans were known, could not remain uninfluenced by the liberal and nationalist ideas. Therefore, all of these ethnic groups began to starve for their individual nation- state.
4. At the same time they did not have cordial relations among themselves. They always had an intense conflict among themselves.
5. The even began to occupy as much land as possible at each their cost.
6. These incidents coincided with the effort of major European powers- Russia, France, Austria- Hungary to dominate the Balkan region for their indivual trade, political, social and military concerns.
7. They also though of naval dominance in Europe, after controlling Balkan waters.
Due to all these reasons the nationalist tensions emerged in the Balkans.
Q.6 Find out more about nationalist symbols in countries outside Europe. For one or two countries, collect examples of pictures, posters or music that are symbols of nationalism. How are these different form European examples?
Some of the nationalist symbols of the countries other than European countries are as under :
These nationalist symbols are very different from the symbols of European countries in the manner that they mainifest nationalist sentiments of their respective countries.
Q.1 Who was Frederic Sorrieu?
Frederic Sorrieu was a French artist. In 1848, he prepeared a series of four prints visualizing his dream of world made up of ‘democratic and social republics.’
Q.2 What do you understand by the modern and nation states?
(i) In a modern state a centralized power exercise sovereign control over a clearly defined territory.
(ii) A nation – state was a modern state in which majority of its citizens, and not only its rulers, came to develop sense of common identity and shared history or descent.
Short Answer Type Questions (60-80 words)
Q.3 What were the main features of the powerful aristocratic lass of the European continent?
The following were the main features of the powerful aristocratic class of the European continent:
1. The members of this class were united by a common way of life that cut across the regional divisions.
2. They spoke French for purposes of diplomacy and high society.
3. Their families were often connected by ties marriage.
Q.4 Did there occur social transition in European during 18th-19th centuries? If yes, how?
1. Yes, before the 18th – 19th centuries powerful ………………… … … … … … … … … … … … activities in Europe. They lad familities and owned vaste treaks of land. They produced grains.
2. But 18th and 19th centuries saw the industrialisation of Europe. Due to industrialisation, there emerged powerful middle class and an equally powerful working class.
3. Therefore, the social dominancy shifted from the aristocracy to the middle class of Europe. This was the phase of social transition in Europe.
Long Answer Type Questions (100-125 words)
Q.5 What changes took place in France after the French Revolution in 1789?
The following changes took place in France after the French Revolution in 1789 :
1. Sovereignty was transferred from absolute monarch to a body of French citizens.
2. The ideas of a patrie (the fatherland) and le citoyen (the citizen) were popularized by the revolutionaries. They emphasized the nation of a united community enjoying equal rights under a constitution.
3. A new French flag, the tricolor, was chosen to replace the former royal standard.
4. The Estates General was renamed as National Assembly. It was elected by a body of active citizens.
5. New hymns were composed, oaths were taken and martyrs were commeno- rated, all in the name of the nation.
6. A centralized administrative system was put in place which formulated uniform laws for all citizens within its territory.
7. Internal custom duties and dues were abolished and a uniform system of weights and measures was adopted.
8. French language was promoted over the regional languages.