
1.Electrostatics (1)
8
Lecture1.1

Lecture1.2

Lecture1.3

Lecture1.4

Lecture1.5

Lecture1.6

Lecture1.7

Lecture1.8


2.Electrostatics (2)
7
Lecture2.1

Lecture2.2

Lecture2.3

Lecture2.4

Lecture2.5

Lecture2.6

Lecture2.7


3.Current Electricity (1)
9
Lecture3.1

Lecture3.2

Lecture3.3

Lecture3.4

Lecture3.5

Lecture3.6

Lecture3.7

Lecture3.8

Lecture3.9


4.Current Electricity (2)
4
Lecture4.1

Lecture4.2

Lecture4.3

Lecture4.4


5.Capacitor
6
Lecture5.1

Lecture5.2

Lecture5.3

Lecture5.4

Lecture5.5

Lecture5.6


6.RC Circuits
3
Lecture6.1

Lecture6.2

Lecture6.3


7.Magnetism and Moving Charge
16
Lecture7.1

Lecture7.2

Lecture7.3

Lecture7.4

Lecture7.5

Lecture7.6

Lecture7.7

Lecture7.8

Lecture7.9

Lecture7.10

Lecture7.11

Lecture7.12

Lecture7.13

Lecture7.14

Lecture7.15

Lecture7.16


8.Magnetism and Matter
10
Lecture8.1

Lecture8.2

Lecture8.3

Lecture8.4

Lecture8.5

Lecture8.6

Lecture8.7

Lecture8.8

Lecture8.9

Lecture8.10


9.Electromagnetic Induction
14
Lecture9.1

Lecture9.2

Lecture9.3

Lecture9.4

Lecture9.5

Lecture9.6

Lecture9.7

Lecture9.8

Lecture9.9

Lecture9.10

Lecture9.11

Lecture9.12

Lecture9.13

Lecture9.14


10.Alternating Current Circuit
8
Lecture10.1

Lecture10.2

Lecture10.3

Lecture10.4

Lecture10.5

Lecture10.6

Lecture10.7

Lecture10.8


11.Electromagnetic Waves
4
Lecture11.1

Lecture11.2

Lecture11.3

Lecture11.4


12.Photoelectric Effect
5
Lecture12.1

Lecture12.2

Lecture12.3

Lecture12.4

Lecture12.5


13.Ray Optics (Part 1)
12
Lecture13.1

Lecture13.2

Lecture13.3

Lecture13.4

Lecture13.5

Lecture13.6

Lecture13.7

Lecture13.8

Lecture13.9

Lecture13.10

Lecture13.11

Lecture13.12


14.Ray Optics (Part 2)
13
Lecture14.1

Lecture14.2

Lecture14.3

Lecture14.4

Lecture14.5

Lecture14.6

Lecture14.7

Lecture14.8

Lecture14.9

Lecture14.10

Lecture14.11

Lecture14.12

Lecture14.13


15.Ray Optics (Part 3)
6
Lecture15.1

Lecture15.2

Lecture15.3

Lecture15.4

Lecture15.5

Lecture15.6


16.Wave Optics
21
Lecture16.1

Lecture16.2

Lecture16.3

Lecture16.4

Lecture16.5

Lecture16.6

Lecture16.7

Lecture16.8

Lecture16.9

Lecture16.10

Lecture16.11

Lecture16.12

Lecture16.13

Lecture16.14

Lecture16.15

Lecture16.16

Lecture16.17

Lecture16.18

Lecture16.19

Lecture16.20

Lecture16.21


17.Atomic Structure
6
Lecture17.1

Lecture17.2

Lecture17.3

Lecture17.4

Lecture17.5

Lecture17.6


18.Nucleus
6
Lecture18.1

Lecture18.2

Lecture18.3

Lecture18.4

Lecture18.5

Lecture18.6


19.XRay
4
Lecture19.1

Lecture19.2

Lecture19.3

Lecture19.4


20.Error and Measurement
2
Lecture20.1

Lecture20.2


21.Semiconductors
9
Lecture21.1

Lecture21.2

Lecture21.3

Lecture21.4

Lecture21.5

Lecture21.6

Lecture21.7

Lecture21.8

Lecture21.9


22.Communication Systems
5
Lecture22.1

Lecture22.2

Lecture22.3

Lecture22.4

Lecture22.5

Chapter Notes – Electromagnetic Induction
MAGNETIC FLUX
Magnetic flux (ΦB) through an area dS⃗ in a magnetic field B⃗ is defined as
ΦB=∫B⃗ .dS⃗
A magnetic field B⃗ is visualized by drawing lines of field, which are imaginary. However, magnetic flux (ΦB) is a real physical quantity.
The dimensions of ΦB can be derived as follows :
[ΦB]=[B][S]=[FAL][S] [as F = BIL sinθ]
or [ΦB]=[MLT−2AL][L2]=[ML2T−2A−1]
The SI unit of magnetic flux is weber (Wb), which is equivalent to Tm^{2} or to Vs.
For an elemental area dS⃗ in a magnetic field B⃗ , the associated magnetic flux is given by
dΦB=B⃗ .dS⃗ =BdScosθ
The flux dΦB will be maximum, if θ=0, i.e., if the area is perpendicular to the direction of B⃗ . If the area lies along the direction of B⃗ (i.e., dS⃗ is normal to B⃗ ), the flux dΦB is zero.
Consider a cylinder of radius R placed in a uniform field B⃗ , as shown.
The flux for the righthand end surface is
ΦB=+πR2B
But for the lefthand end surface, it is
ΦB=−πR2B
Also note that for any area element on the curved surface, n^ and B⃗ are mutually perpendicular
(θ=900), the magnetic flux linked is ΦB=0
As magnetic lines of field are closed curves (i.e., monopoles do not exist), total magnetic flux linked with a closed surface is always zero, i.e.,
∮B⃗ .dS⃗ =0
This law is called Gauss’ law for magnetism.
Application 1
At a given place, horizontal and vertical components of earth’s magnetic field B_{H} and B_{V} are along x and y axes respectively as shown. What is the total flux of earth’s magnetic field associated with an area S, if the area S is in (a) xy plane (b) yz plane and (c) zx plane ?
Solution:
Since, here B⃗ =i^BH−j^BV = constant, so
Φ=∫B⃗ .dS⃗ =B⃗ .S⃗ [as B⃗ = constt.]
(a) For area S in xy plane, S⃗ =k^S.
⸫ Φxy=(i^BH−j^BV).(k^S)=0 [as i^.k^=j^.k^=0]
(b) For area S in yz plane, S⃗ =i^S.
⸫ Φyz=(i^BH−j^BV).(i^S)=BHS [as i^.i^=1 and j^.i^=0]
(c) For area S in zx plane, S⃗ =j^S.
⸫ Φzx=(j^BH−j^BV).(j^S)=−BVS [as i^.j^=0 and j^.j^=1]
INDUCED EMF
FARADAY’S LAWS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION
In 1820, Oersted discovered that an electric current produces magnetic field. This prompted scientists to look for the inverse effect : ‘It must be possible to produce electric current using magnetic field’.
Michael Faraday conducted a series of experiments for eleven long years, and finally on 29^{th} Aug., 1931 he succeeded in producing induced current for the first time. Based on his experiments, he gave following two laws of electromagnetic induction (EMI) :
Law I :
Whenever there is a change of flux linked with a circuit, or whenever a moving conductor cuts the flux, an emf is induced in it.
This phenomenon is called electromagnetic induction and the emf, induced emf. If the circuit is closed the current which flows in it due to induced emf is called induced current.
Law II :
The magnitude of induced emf is equal to the rate of change of flux, i.e.,
E=∣∣dΦdt∣∣
The direction or the sense of the induced emf (or induced current) is given by Lenz’s law.
Eddy current
When a metallic conducting sheet is moved in magnetic field, A current loop is developed on its surface which is called eddys current. Due to eddy’s current, thermal energy is produced in it. This energy is reduced at the loss of kinetic energy of the plate and the plate slows down. It is known as electromagnetic damping.
LENZ’S LAW
The effect of the induced emf is such as to oppose the change in flux that produces it.
In other words, if the flux decreases, then the induced current tries to support the existing magnetic field. If the flux increases, the induced emf tries to decrease the existing magnetic field by creating field in opposite direction.
Considering all the above statements, the Faraday’s laws of electromagnetic induction can now be analytically expressed as
E=−dΦdt
Negative sign indicates towards the Lenz’s law.
Note that in case of electromagnetic induction, an emf always exists whether the circuit is closed or open. But, the induced current will exist only if the circuit is closed. If the total resistance of the circuit is R, the induced current is
i=ER
Induced Charge Flow
When a current is induced in the circuit due to the flux change, charge flows through the circuit. The net amount of charge which flows along the circuit is given as :
i=ER=1RdΦdt or dqdt=1RdΦdt or dq=1RdΦ
⸫ q=∫q0dq=∫Φ2Φ11RdΦ=Φ2−Φ1R=ΔΦR
Thus, the induced charge is independent of the manner and time in which the flux changes. However, the induced emf and current depend on time.
FARADAY’S EXPERIMENTS
The experiments performed by Faraday can be categorized into following three groups.
Group I :
Two coils are coaxially arranged such that the magnetic flux produced by one links with the other. The first coil (called the primary coil) is connected to a battery, a switch and a rheostat. The second coil (called the secondary coil) is connected to galvanometer.When switch S is closed and the current in the primary coil is increased, there is an induced emf and current in the secondary [Fig. (A)]. Again when the current in the primary is decreased by increasing the resistance R of the rheostat, the galvanometer G shows deflection in the opposite direction [Fig. (B)]. This time the emf and the current is induced in the secondary in the same direction as that in the primary.
Surprising thing is that when the current in primary remains steady, there is no emf or current induced in the secondary.
When the current in the primary increases [Figure (A)], the magnetic flux produced by it also increases. Now, as per Lenz’s law, the induced current in the secondary should be such as to reduce the field B. The direction of this induced current is shown in figure (A).
In figure (B), the current in primary decreases thereby decreasing field B. Therefore, as per Lenz’s law, induced current in the secondary will be in a direction so as to increase the field B. The direction of this induced current is shown in figure (B).
Group II :
A coil is arranged to link some of the magnetic flux from a source (which may be either a magnet or a current).If the source is moved towards the coil, the flux or field B increases. The induced emf or the current in the coil will be in such a direction so as to try to reduce the field [figure (A)].
If the source is moved away [figure (B)], the field B decreases, and as a result a current as shown in figure (B) is induced in the coil in such a direction so as to try to increase the field.
Note that the magnitude and the direction of the induced current depend on the relative velocity of the source and the coil. It is immaterial whether the source moves, or the coil moves or both of them move. The important thing for the emf to be induced is that there should be change of flux linked with the coil.
Group III :
If part of a conducing circuit is moving and there by cutting magnetic flux, a current is induced in the circuit. In figure (A), rod AB slides over the rails, and moves toward right with a velocity, v, thereby cutting the magnetic flux. Induced current flows from B to A.In figure (B), a rod AB rotates with angular velocity ω so as to cut the magnetic flux. Again, induced current flows from B to A. In figure (C), a disc is made to rotate in a magnetic field. Current flows in the circuit because of induced emf. In fact, this is known as Faraday’s disc. It was the first continuous generator given to the world by Faraday.